Methods to determine the causes of failures of CNC machine tools

1. Intuitive method
It is to use human senses to pay attention to the phenomenon when the failure occurs and to determine the possible location of the failure. If there are abnormal noises or sparks when there is a fault, where there is a burnt position, and where there is an abnormal phenomenon of heat, then further observe the surface condition of each circuit board that may be malfunctioning, such as whether there is any on the circuit board Check whether there is any scorched, blackened or cracked electronic components to further narrow the scope of inspection. This is the most basic and simple method, but it requires machine tool maintenance personnel to have certain maintenance experience.

2. Use the hardware alarm function of the CNC system
The alarm indicator can judge the fault. There are many alarm indicators on the hardware circuit board of the CNC system, which can roughly determine the location of the fault.

Third, make full use of the software alarm function of the CNC system
All CNC systems have a self-diagnostic function. The self-diagnostic program can be used to quickly diagnose the system during the working period of the system. Once the fault is detected, the fault will be displayed on the form screen in an alarm mode or the various alarm lights will be lit. During maintenance, the fault of the machine tool can be found according to the alarm content.

Fourth, use the diagnostic function of the status Display
The CNC system can not only display the fault diagnosis information, but also provide various states of machine tool diagnosis in the form of diagnosis address and diagnosis data. For example, it provides the input/output signal state of the interface between the system and the machine tool, or PC and CNC. The input/output signal status of the interface between the PC and the machine tool can be used to check whether the CNC system inputs the signal to the machine tool or whether the switch information of the machine tool has been input to the CNC system by using the status display of the display screen. . In short, the fault can be distinguished whether it is on the side of the machine tool or the side of the CNC system, so that the inspection scope of the cnc machine tool can be reduced.

5. When a failure occurs, the CNC system parameters should be checked in time
System parameter changes will directly affect the performance of the machine tool, and even cause the machine tool to malfunction and the entire machine tool cannot work. The external interference may cause the changes of individual parameters in the memory. It seems that when some inexplicable failures occur in the machine tool, the parameters of the CNC system can be checked.

Six, spare parts replacement method
When the machine tool failure is analyzed and found that the circuit board may be faulty, the spare part board can be used to replace it, and the faulty circuit board can be quickly determined. However, the following two points should be paid attention to when using this method: ①Pay attention to the position of the adjustable switches on the circuit board when changing the board, so that the setting status of the two circuit boards to be exchanged should be exactly the same, otherwise it will cause The system is in an unstable or suboptimal state, and even an alarm occurs. ②After replacing some circuit boards (such as CCU boards), it is necessary to reset or input the parameters and programs of the machine tool.

Seven, use the detection terminal on the circuit board
There are detection terminals on the circuit board for measuring the circuit voltage and waveform, so as to determine whether the part of the circuit is working properly during debugging and maintenance. But when testing this part of the circuit, you should be familiar with the principle of the circuit and the logical relationship of the circuit. In the case of unfamiliar logical relationships, two identical circuit boards can be compared for testing, so as to find the fault of the circuit board.

In short, when a cnc machine tool fails, follow the above-mentioned detection steps and methods to correctly determine the cause of the failure and the location of the failure.

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